The Timing of Pesakh
According to the Nazarene
(name removed at author's own request)
Scholars have long debated over whether the chronology of the Passion Week in the Gospels is reconcilable with the Old Testament. Specifically, the biggest problem that arises here is the timing of Passover (Pesakh). The New Testament clearly places the Passover that is kept by Yahushua and his talmidim (students, disciples) on the beginning of the 14th at evening and then Yahushua's crucifixion clearly takes place on the 14th day that follows at the very beginning of the Rabbinic Passover. The long-enduring reading of the Tenach has, from one point of view, preserved the Rabbinic understanding (end of 14th - 21st; with the 15th as the High Sabbath) and this was unquestionably the understanding that the Pharisees and Cohanim (Priests) had at the time of the crucifixion of Y'shua (Mish. Pesh. - explains that the Passover sacrifice was killed at the end of the 14th). However, it will be noted herein that this was not the Nazarene understanding. For, they placed their Passover Seder a day before. Furthermore, it will be demonstrated herein that the Nazarene understanding is also preserved in the Tenach - just as viably as the Rabbinic System is and perhaps even more so. What will further be shown is that there is very compelling evidence from the Exodus scenario, Nazarene documents, and an intriguing mirror pattern of the Annual Moedim that sets forth a powerful argument for the Nazarene System (beginning of 14th through the end of 21st; with the 14th as the High Sabbath) that should no longer be overlooked.
Debunking Two Popular Hypotheses
"The Mock-Passover Theory" - Spurious
One popular notion used to dismiss the idea that there really are two different schools for the timing of Passover presented in the New Testament is the idea that when (in the Passion Week) it says that Yahushua and his disciples "kept the Passover", "prepared the Passover", "ate the Passover" etc. that the N.T. does not really mean what it says. Rather, some say that this was a "memorial", "practice", or "mock" Passover supper. This argument is usually best made using Luke 22:15-18:
22:15 Then He said to them, With fervent desire have I desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.
22:16 For I say to you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of G-d.
22:17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:
22:18 For I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of G-d shall come.
(Note: It implies that Yahushua actually did eat this Passover but would not eat ANY MORE until the Kingdom; it does however say that he did NOT drink.) The theory of a mock Passover is here presented by asserting that Yahushua really wanted to keep the Passover, yet wasn't going to be able to. Thus, he could not rightly partake of the cup until the Kingdom. However, the idea that Yahushua kept a Nazarite vow prohibiting Him from partaking of the fruit of the vine is perhaps more in line with the context (Num. 6:3-4). Indeed, this has been the understanding of a number of scholars going back to at least Jerome, who intentionally makes no distinction between a Nazarene and a Nazarite. Many of the most prolific followers of Yahushua's initial movement had at some point taken Nazarite vows including John the Baptist, James the Just, and Paul. However, an even more plausible explanation of why Yahushua did not partake of the cup is posited by overlaying the Matthean account where it says that this was the "cup of the new covenant". Now the idea that this sets forth is one of timing. In other words, since the new covenant will not be inaugurated until the Kingdom then it follows why Yahushua did not at that time partake of the cup of the new covenant (see New Covenant - Not For Today by James Trimm). Whatever be the case however, absolutely nothing in the N.T. actually supports the theory of a "memorial" or a "mock" Passover. The argument is in stark contrast to the clear statements that are made by both Yahushua and His talmidim and is purely ad hoc, inflicting serious damage to the clear statements of the text. Seven times, the Synoptics and John literally state that Yahushua and his talmidim had the Passover. Interestingly, it should be noted that using the kind of logic that the mock Passover theory is based on (that attempts to explain away a seeming difficulty) is exactly what led Mohammedans to concoct the theory of a "mock" crucifixion and resurrection! If this argument is adhered to, where would the excuses for the evidence stop? The clear circumstantial evidence, as will be shown, as well as the direct statements of the N.T. itself (as will be cited), show explicitly that Yahushua and his talmidim partook of an ACTUAL true Passover Seder on the night prior to Yahushua's crucifixion.
"The New Moon Problem
Another popular dismissal of the N.T. Passover variance is a somewhat more valiant attempt to explain the controversy through a new moon problem. Now, the way the beginning of a month was determined during the entire Biblical period, and after, was with a visible new moon crescent sighted from the environs of Israel and reported to Jerusalem that day (see article by Chris Lingle - What was the Biblical Method of Determining the Month?). Also, the correct way of intercalating the year according to the consistent Hebrew method presented in scripture and history is by placing the Passover on or after the Spring Equinox. This much is well established by the pashat (literal meaning) of Ex. 34:22, which demands that the intercalation of the Feasts rather than the whole year itself be regulated by the tekufah (equinoxes and solstices). With regard to barley, it is important to understand that there is a commandment to offer a first-fruits offfering around Passover. Many people have been misled to believe that this offering was really of "ripe grain" rather than of "first-fruits of green ears". This often results in the utilization of a late intercalation method which was extant among the Jews in Babylonian provinces, such as Elephantine. This faulty intercalation system is nothing other than the direct descendant of the practice of Jeroboam who caused apostate Israel to seek alliances with the surrounding Aramaic speaking nations and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles in the "eighth month", which would have been the "seventh" month on the Babylonian Calendar. See article by Chris Lingle - When is the Correct Timing of Intercalation on the Hebrew Calendar? though this can all be well established, there nonetheless, remains some controversy about when to intercalate the year according to the true Hebrew calendar. However, neither of the debated intercalation patterns answer the situation of two different Passovers in the N.T. passion week with a plausible new moon problem anyway. For consideration here therefore, we will show both intercalation systems and their corresponding first visible new moon crescents for the years 26 through 35 C.E. generated from the Macintosh Platform, Voyager II Moon Phase Ephemeris (NMC = New Moon Crescent):
|26 - NMC on Fri., Mar. 8 or Sat., Apr. 7.|
27 - NMC on Thurs., Mar. 27.
28 - NMC on Tues., Mar. 16 or Wed., Apr.14.
29 - NMC on Sun., Apr. 3.
30 - NMC on Thurs., Mar. 23.
31 - NMC on Mon., Mar. 13 or Wed., Apr. 11.
32 - NMC on Sun., Mar. 30.
33 - NMC on Fri., Mar. 20 or Sat., Apr. 18.
34 - NMC on Wed., Mar. 10 or Thurs. Apr. 8.
Added to the data above is the provability of a Thursday crucifixion (see article by Chris Lingle - When were the True Dates of the Crucifixion and Resurrection?). Therefore, if the Rabbinic system was being used by both the Nazarenes as well as the Pharisees then a new moon disparity would have to occur with the criteria of a borderline 1st day new moon crescent (under 9 degrees) appearing over Israel at sunset between the years of 26 to 35 C.E on a Wednesday. This is more than an ample spread for the scenario seeing that the years 29 through 33 are much more preferable if any sort of historical data would be used to lock the date in. (At this point the reader may wish to look on any calendar giving an enumerated succession of the days of the week for comparison sake). If one assumes that both Nazarenes and Pharisees were keeping the end of the 14th/15th as Passover, then the criteria for a Wednesday borderline NMC could allow for a misunderstanding on the exact day of the correct new moon for the Pharisee group yielding their Passover on the day following the Nazarene Passover in the N.T.. While this theory sounds strikingly plausible, this criteria is not met on any of the dates above. The years 27 and 30 have Wednesday dark moons that occur under the horizon at sunset, so there is no way that these could be mistaken for 1st days. In the year 34 a new moon crescent well over 20 degrees occurs on Wednesday, so there is no way that the Pharisee group could miss this one and take the Thursday moon for their system instead. The Apr. 8 Thurs. NMC is not only the wrong intercalation system but the dark moon on the sunset of the 7th was only 1 degree above the horizon. The years 28 and 31 both present 1st day crescents on Wednesday that seem close but are really not borderline at all (11 degrees and 12 degrees respectively). Added to the fact that the new moons for 28 and 31 really are not borderline is the fact that these dates would yield the incorrect intercalation system placing the Passover a whole month too far away from the Spring Equinox.
The conclusion to this analysis is that while the idea of a new moon disparity between the two groups (the Nazarenes and Pharisees) in the N.T during the passion week is a very attractive explanation, there is actually no astronomical basis for any reasonable hypothesis of this kind whatsoever.
A Plain Look at the
Overlaying the Gospel Accounts
Perhaps the most compelling evidence for the Nazarene model for the timing of Passover and Unleavened Bread is the information on the matter which can be found in the New Testament. We will see when we overlay the Gospel accounts that the Nazarene system is defined apart from what appears to be the proto-type for the modern Rabbinic system which are both recorded in these accounts. Beginning with Matthew:
26:17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, Where wilt you that we prepare for you to eat the Passover?
26:18 And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say to him, The Master says, My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples.
26:19 And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the Passover.
26:20 Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve.
Now, we will overlay this with Mark 14:12-17 which closely parallels Matthew:
14:12 And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the Passover, his disciples said to him, Where wilt you that we go and prepare that you mayest eat the Passover?
14:13 And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and says to them, Go you into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.
14:14 And wheresoever he shall go in, say youto the goodman of the house, The Master says, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the Passover with my disciples?
14:15 And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us.
14:16 And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said to them: and they made ready the Passover.
14:17 And in the evening he cometh with the twelve.
As will be shown below in Ex. 12:15-16 and Lev. 23 :6-7, we encounter the word "roshown" for "first" in Hebrew Matthew of Shem Tob, DuTillet, and Munster of Matthew 26:17. The word here for "first" in Matthew is "kadmaya" in Aramaic just as it is in the Torah accounts. Furthermore, in the Greek the word here is "proto" which is the same root word as it is in the Torah of the LXX. This word "proto" is likewise the word that appears in Mark 14:12. All of these words can be variously and accurately translated as "before" and so therefore, these passages of Matthew and Mark can be rendered with "before" instead of "first" as follows:
Mt. 26:17 Now before the day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Y'shua, saying to Him, Where wilt You that we prepare for You to eat the Passover?
Mk. 14:12 And before the day of unleavened bread, when they killed the Passover, His talmidim said to Him, Where do You will that we go and prepare that You may eat the Passover?
As we will see as we progress, the fact that Y'shua and his talmidim were keeping their Passover on the 14th of Nisan is well established by multiple facts in the New Testament.
Now, we will compare from Luke:
22:1 Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.
22:2 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.
22:3 Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.
22:4 And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him to them.
22:5 And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.
22:6 And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him to them in the absence of the multitude.
22:7 Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the Passover must be killed.
22:8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the Passover, that we may eat.
22:9 And they said to him, Where wilt you that we prepare?
22:10 And he said to them, Behold, when youare entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.
22:11 And you shall say to the goodman of the house, The Master says to you, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the Passover with my disciples?
22:12 And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.
22:13 And they went, and found as he had said to them: and they made ready the Passover.
22:14 And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.
Luke 22:1 dovetails precisely with the translation of "before" as was shown above in Matthew and Mark. The statement in 22:7, that the Passover was a day of unleavened bread, parallels Josephus' account of how the usage applied in that day. Josephus tells us that at least a sizable portion of the Jews of his day referred to the feast of unleavened bread as an eight day feast (Jos. Ant. 2:15:1). The basis for such a usage will be demonstrated in the Tenach where it will be shown that Passover is taken with unleavened bread, yet it was a day before the seven days of unleavened bread at which no leavon could be found in the house. As we will see later, Josephus likewise makes this distinction labeling when the 1st day of this seven was (the 15th) by telling us when the second day was (the 16th) and showing that the moed of unleavened bread came the day after the moed of Passover. Nowhere then, is Passover called the 1st day of unleavened bread - it is only labeled (by extension) as a day of unleavened bread because unleavened bread is partaken with the Passover Seder. Thus, Lk. 22:7 is consistent with common historical information.
So here Luke 22 parallels Mark 14 and Mt. 26. Let's take a look at John:
13:1 Now before the feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that his hour
was come that he should depart out of this world to the Father, having loved
his own which were in the world, he loved them to the end.
13:2 And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him.
Here "pro" (before in v.1) refers to the hours just prior to the coming Passover. This understanding explains why in Mt. 26:17 and Mark 14:12 it is the day before (the 14th) Unleavened Bread (the 15th) and why evening here occurs when they prepare the Passover (Mt. 26:17-20 and Mk. 14:12-17). Evening (which technically began the 14th Passover) occurs in these passages when they actually begin to eat the Passover. It is apparent that Yahushua's followers used the last hour or so of the 13th on into the 14th to acquire a location and prepare the Passover. Then, they ate the Passover on the 14th. This understanding is apparent in John 13:1 where it is apparently right "before" Passover during "his hour" when it became indelibly stamped in Yahushua's mind that he should soon die. Lk. 22:14 remarks that when "the hour was come" they sat down to eat. So, it was during the hour that they prepared and ate the Passover Lamb at their Seder on the 14th that Yahushua knew, more acutely than ever, what would shortly come to pass upon him.
The above accounts are also supported by the fragmentary manuscript of the Good News according to Peter which, according to Theodoret, (the original ms.) was in use by the Nazarenes:
1:3 And he delivered him (Y'shua) to the people on the day before the unleavened bread, their feast.
What follows these passages above is the account of the Passover Seder of Yahushua and His talmidim. John's concern was to touch upon certain events that the other synoptics did not touch upon, such as the washing of feet (John 13:5) - an innovation of the hand washing. Therefore, the presence of a water pitcher for the hand washing ceremony found in the typical Jewish Seder is present in all accounts. All accounts also record the passing of the afikomen (meaning "my presence has come") which is the unleavened bread that is shared at a Jewish Passover Seder. In John, apparently the remainder of the afikomen is dipped into the herbs to signify the bitterness of Judas' betrayal. There is more evidence in John 13-17 showing that a Passover Seder took place. The most obvious is that there are no events inserted between the chronology of the Nazarene Passover and the events at the Garden of Gethsemane which led to Yahushua's capture and trial. The reference to "reclining" at the table (John 13:23, Mt. 26:20) is also directly taken out of oral tradition concerning the Passover Seder (Mish. Pesh. 10:1B). The last of the "Four Questions" that are asked at the Passover Seder according to Jewish tradition is "On all other nights we eat our meals either sitting or reclining; why on this night do we all recline?" The answer is that free men are privileged to recline. Another feature of the Jewish Passover Seder is the recitation of the Hallel (Ps. 113-118) after the Seder . (In Mt 26:30 they sang Psalms after the Seder). Here is a list of general parallels between the Hallel Psalms and John 13-17:
|Stressing the Name: compare - Ps.
113:1ff, Ps. 115:1; 116:13 with John 14:13,14,26; 15:16,23-26, 17:6,11,26.
Joy: compare Ps. 113:9; 118:24 with John 16:20-22; 15:11; 16:33
Keep commandments: compare Ps. 116:1 with John 14:5,21,23.
Deity of Messiah: compare Ps. 113:4-5 with John 16:32, 14:10-12, 20, 28; 15:21; 16:15; 17:21.
Death of Holy Ones: compare Ps. 116:15 with John 13:33,36; 14:12; 15:13.
Suffering Servant: compare Ps. 116:16 with John 15:20; 14:28; 13:12-20.
Resurrection: compare Ps. 118:17-18 with John 14:19,28; 16:5, 16-19; 17:16.
Stone of Stumbling: compare Ps. 118:22 with Isa. 8:14 and John 16:1.
Rejection: Ps. 118:22 with John 13:38; 15:18-20,23; 16:2.
Hating/Loving YHWH: compare Ps. 118 with John 14:15,21,23,28, 31; 15:23.
Coming in the Name: compare Ps. 118:26 with John 14:13-14; 15:26; 17:6,11,26.
Not being troubled: compare Ps. 118:26 with John 14:27.
Cup of salvation: compare Ps. 116:13, 118:21 with Mt. 26:27 and John 15:1-7.
From this it is apparent that the Hallel Psalms provided background material for Yahushua's teachings in John 13-17 that demonstrate that this was a Passover Seder taking place. Finally, in John 15:1-7 the vine analogy parallels the blessing on the wine ceremony at the Jewish Passover Seder.
All of these passages from Mt., Mk., Lk. and John show that Yahushua and his talmidim were seeking where they could observe the coming Passover. After finding a suitable place, they prepared and ate having the Passover Seder on the night of the 14th of Nisan. What follows in all of the accounts is the events in the Garden of Gethsemane culminating in the seizure and trial of Yahushua at about the morning twilight. The trial of Yahushua continues on into the morning, he is crucified by noon and dies by 3 P.M. - all occurring on the 14th of Nisan. He is buried before evening (la-erev) according to Hebrew Matthew (Mt. 27:57) and then the 15th ensues which continues the proto-Rabbinic Passover system.
The Nazarenes observe the 14th; the
Pharisees observe the 15th
We know from our analysis above that Yahushua and his followers kept their Passover on the 14th. Also, the N.T. states that the Priests and Pharisees would not kill Yahushua during their Feast (Mt. 26:4-5). From John 18:28 we also know that the Chief Priests and Pharisees would not enter into the Praetorium to judge Yahushua during his trial on the 14th for fear of becoming unclean for their coming Passover which began at the end of the 14th. DuTillet of Matthew supports this. Now, it was the day after Yahushua's death and burial when Mt. 27:62 remarks:
"Now on the next day, which was following the search for leaven, the chief Cohanim and P'rushim came together to Pilate".
From this, it is apparent that the 14th was the day of leaven removal in preparation for the 15th High Day to the Chief Priests and Pharisees (compare Mark 15:42, Luke 23:54, John 19:14, 31, 42 and Mishna/Talmud). From this information it should be plain that the Greek "prosabbaton" and "paraskeu" indicate that it was a day of preparation for the Passover rather than the weekly Sabbath. A common misnomer about the Aramaic Peshitta is that the Peshitta says that it was "Friday" in these verses. However, such is not the case. The Peshitta (as well as the Old Syriac) for these verses supply the common word "erubta" meaning a preparation for a Sabbath - whether it be a weekly or an annual Sabbath. Such a historical setting allowed for Yahushua to both fulfill the law by keeping and establishing the Nazarene Passover System while actually becoming the Passover on the Rabbinic System. The reason will become appearant in the conclusion. Historical data combined with new moon simulation affirms that these events occurred exactly as described, in 30 C.E. (see appendix by Chris Lingle on The Messianic Prophecy of Dan. 9 in the article by James Trimm - Messianic Prophecies in the Tenach and Talmud). We also know that the 15th was apparently not regarded as a High Day by the followers of Yahushua. Often times the key is to notice which Passover system (the Nazarene 14th or the Proto-Rabbinic 15th) is actually referred to. This is because in Mark 16:1 his followers are found purchasing spices on the 15th "Sabbath" after the 14th - the day they buried Yahushua (last verses of Mark 15). Furthermore, they do not even attempt to apply the spices until Sunday morning, the 17th (Mark 16:2), negating the argument of imminency with regard to anointing the body. The same account is in LK 23:54 - 24:1 where it is apparent that Yahushua died and was buried on the 14th which was (according to the majority of Jews at the time) a preparation for the Thursday/Friday 15th at which time the Nazarene women bought spices. This is evident because the evening that was immediately after Yahushua's burial already had passed. The women then, after having rested on the weekly Sabbath, they came to annoint the body on Sunday morning. Contrasting this, we have already seen that Mt 26:11, Mk 14:12, LK 22:1,7-9 and Jn 13:1 all refer to the Nazarene Sytem of reckoning Passover. . This should not come as a surprise once one realizes that there are actually two distinct Passover systems that are being kept by two distinct groups in the N.T. period.Another evidence for two Passover Systems occurs in Luke 6:. Here it indicates that the Nazarene and Pharisaic Sabbath days for the Passover Feast occurred back to back. This fact comes from two things, first we know from Luke 3:1 that that year was 27 CE (15th year of Tiberius) and from John 2:12-13 that that year was 28 CE (46th year of Temple refurbishment, which according to Josephus began in 19 BCE, Ant. 15:11:1). Luke 6:1 fits as the following year in the harmony of the gospels and therefore was 29 CE. The dates that are here indicated therefore reflect year 29. The next issue about Luke 6:1 is the phrase "deutero-proto" (second-first) as it appears in a well attested amount of authoritative manuscripts. The proper translation of Luke 6:1 is therefore, "On the second Sabbath after the first..." just as it appears in the Authorized Version of 1611. The new moon crescent (Abib1) in 29 CE was visible at sunset on Sunday, April 3rd at an altitude of 8*39'. The Passover, as observed on the 14th of Abib, occurred on Saturday/Sunday April 16th. This is exactly the situation for the days of the week for this year of 1998. Incidently, the first-fruits lamb (which Yahushua also had to fulfill the type of) was sacrificed on the morning of the 14th in 29 CE. This firstfruits ceremony was linked Passover/ULB to Pentecost. Now, the Pharisaic High Sabbath was on Sunday/Monday in 29 CE. It was therefore a Monday when Yahushua came with his disciples to pluck and rub barley. We know this because the text says that it was a Sabbath as exclaimed by the Pharisees. We know that to the Pharisees it would not have been legal for anyone to pluck and rub barley until the day after their Sabbath which would have been on the 16th of Nisan - a Tuesday that year. However, Yahushua and his disciples had their Passover High Sabbath on the day before, which was on Sunday - the 14th. This was the first Sunday on or after the Passover and so therefore it was legal for them to pluck grain as the wave sheaf had already commenced legally for them during the day portion of Nisan 14. This Sunday also represented the first day to count to Pentecost for the Nazarenes as per Deut. 16:1 and Lev. 23. After summing up his position concerning plucking grain on a Sabbath deferring to David and the shewbread incident, Yahushua also adds the statement that "The son of man is L-rd of the Sabbath". Now the word for this in the text is "sabbaton" and is a derivative of the Hebrew "Sabbathown" indicating a High Sabbath not a weekly one. In other words, Yahushua was stating that He had the right to proclaim the High Sabbaths and that they were made for Him and us and not subject to the traditions of men! This is direct evidence from another year other than 30 CE that two Passover Systems existed at that time. In John 12:1 it mentions that Yahushua came to Bethany 6 days before Passover. On the next day (v. 12), Yahushua entered into Jerusalem paralleling the 10th of Nisan, separation of the Passover Lamb practice. This Nisan (Abib)10 was a Sunday in 30 CE. Reckoned inclusively the dating is arrived at (6 days before Passover) from the Nazarene 14th Passover. Reckoned exclusively the dating (6 days before Passover) is reckoned from the 15th Proto-Rabbinic Passover. Either way, the chronology is in tact and the usage of two different Passover reckonings in the New Testament is established.
The Nazarene System
As Interpreted in the Torah
Here, we will present the ancient Nazarene system, which is an eight day system, having Passover and the High Sabbath occurring on the 14th and seven days of ULB following from the 15th through the 21st (being the last High Sabbath). We will see that this system satisfies all the criteria of the Scriptures and has with it a great deal of supporting evidence. Let us examine, in depth, the meaning of the text of Exodus 12:6-15:
Exodus 12:6 - And you shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. (KJV)
Exodus 12:14 - And this day shall be to you for a memorial; and you shall keep it a feast to the L-RD throughout your generations; you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. (KJV)
Here Exodus 12:6, 14 establishes that the 14th of Nisan is the Passover, a memorial, and a "moed" to be kept throughout Israel's generations.
Exodus 12:15 - Seven days shall youeat unleavened bread; even the first day you shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
Now, if we follow chronologically, the seven day period of Unleavened Bread begins after Passover. The key phrase "first day" bears some special attention. Again, the Hebrew word which appears as "first" here is "roshown". Let us examine the meaning of this very important key word in depth:
roshown - lit. "heads, chief, former, before", as in, "prior to what immediately follows next".
The Hebrew language is largely a contextual language with its terms relying on what surrounds them. This particular word is translated as "before" on several occasions in the Tenach:
Numbers 6:12 - And he shall consecrate to the L-RD the days of his separation, and shall bring a lamb of the first year for a trespass offering: but the days that were BEFORE shall be lost, because his separation was defiled. (KJV)
Joshua 8:33b - Moses the servant of the L-RD had commanded BEFORE, that they should bless the people of Israel. (KJV)
I Kings 13:6 - And the king answered and said to the man of G-d, Intreat now the face of the L-RD your G-d, and pray for me, that my hand may be restored me again. And the man of G-d besought the L-RD, and the king's hand was restored him again, and became as it was BEFORE. (KJV)
The most used word for "first" in the Mas. Hebrew is "bn". Now, the viable meaning of the Hebrew word "roshown" as "before" is further verified by the ancient classic translations, the LXX and the Peshitta Tenakh. The LXX Greek translation has here "prote" which means essentially the exact same thing as the Hebrew "roshown". (The Greek word that would normally be used to mean "first" would be "mia", which is not the word in these passages.) The Peshitta Aramaic Tenach has "kadmaya" from the Aramaic root "k'dam" meaning "before." All of these words for "before" are translated as such when there is context to place what follows it after what is just mentioned; the Hebrew language being largely contextual. For example, we do not translate "roshown" as "before" in the phrase "first of the month" because there is nothing to place this month before. Yet, in the context of the passages that follow, the Nazarene System clearly begins to emerge.
Now that we have established a more precise rendering of the word as it appears in Hebrew, Greek and the Aramaic Peshitta, we will go back to Exodus 12:15-19 for a more correct translation as follows:
12:15 - Seven days shall you eat unleavened bread; indeed on the day before you shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eats leavened bread from the day before until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
12:16 - And on the day before there shall be a set-apart convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be a set-apart convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.
12:17 And you shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall you observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.
12:18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at evening.
12:19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eats that which is leavened, indeed that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.
Now, in verse 17 it affirms that the 15th of Nisan is day one of the seven days of unleavened bread because we know from Num. 33:3, as well as Josephus and Midrash Sefer HaYasher, that the day in which Israel was "brought out of the land of Egypt" was on the 15th. This explains why the 15th is even mentioned at all in Leviticus 23 and Deut. 16 which will be covered later in this section. It is apparent from these passages that there are actually eight days in which unleavened bread is eaten, that is, from the 14th through the 21st, but that there are only seven days (15th-21st) in which leaven is forbidden in dwellings. At this point we must give some special attention to the preposition "until" in v.18 as it is dealt with in the Hebrew. The Hebrew word here is "ad" which can mean "during, even to, equally with." Clearly the Hebrew preposition "ad" may or may not include the direct object in it's usage. However, as we will show, "ad" in these instances includes its direct object which would be the 21st. The phrase "until the 21st at evening" is best interpreted chronologically just as it appears. In other words after the 21st, there is an evening at which the Feast stops.
This understanding is supported by Lev. 23:32:
It shall be to you a Sabbath of rest, and you shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even to even, shall you celebrate your Sabbath.
Here we begin the fast for the Day of Atonement after the 9th at evening but, we know that the fast is on the 10th (Lev. 23:27). Therefore, the evening that follows the ninth is the evening of the 10th. The point being made here is one of succession of chronology as it pertains to the phrase "until the 21st at evening" - the evening here referred to in Ex. 12:18 is therefore the evening that comes after the 21st.
Now the key to understanding the Passover chronology in Exodus 12 is found in Lev. 23:5-8:
23:5 In the fourteenth day of the first month at evening is YHWH's Passover.
23:6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread to YHWH: seven days you must eat unleavened bread.
23:7 In the day before you shall have a set-apart convocation: you shall do no servile work therein.
23:8 But you shall offer an offering made by fire to YHWH seven days: in the seventh day is a set-apart convocation: you shall do no servile work therein.
In verse 5, as in Ex. 12:6-14, it is established that the 14th is Passover. In verse 6, as in Ex. 12:17, it is established that the 15th is the day that Israel left Egypt (as per Num. 33:1-2) and that this is the day mentioned which begins the seven days that only unleavened bread may be found in our dwellings. In verse 7, as in Ex. 12:16, it is established that the day before the regular seven days of unleavened bread is the day of the set-apart convocation and Sabbath(i.e. the 14th). In verse 8, as in Ex. 12:16, it is shown that the seventh day of the regular unleavened period is a set-apart convocation also (i.e. the 21st). Interestingly, in verse 8, seven days are mentioned in which burnt offerings were to be conducted - the timing of which follows the day of Passover and begins with the 15th.
A parallel passage to the above verses appears in Numbers with the same treatment of the word "roshown" rendered as "before" as follows:
28:16 And in the fourteenth day of the first month is the Passover of YHWH.
28:17 And in the fifteenth day of this month is the feast: seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten.
28:18 (On the day before shall be a set-apart convocation; you shall do no manner of servile work therein).
28:19 And you shall offer a sacrifice made by fire for a burnt offering to YHWH; two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year: they shall be to you without blemish:
28:20 And their meat offering shall be of flour mingled with oil: three tenth deals shall you offer for a bullock, and two tenth deals for a ram;
28:21 A several tenth deal shall you offer for every lamb, throughout the seven lambs:
28:22 And one goat for a sin offering, to make an atonement for you.
28:23 You shall offer these beside the burnt offering in the morning, which is for a continual burnt offering.
28:24 After this manner you shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savor to YHWH: it shall be offered beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
28:25 And on the seventh day you shall have a set-apart convocation; you shall do no servile work.
Notice, that it is the day before the fifteenth that a day of set-apart convocation and Sabbath is to be kept. Also, notice that verse 18 is a parenthetical inset between the continuation in verse 19 beginning with "And" not "But", as most translations erroneously have it rendered. Insetting verses is common in a contextual language like Hebrew. In fact, we do so in other languages as well. A scriptural example of this is the fact that Genesis records that man was created male and female on the sixth day (Gen. 1:27). Yet, after the creation week is over, the author goes back to tell us about how woman was created out of man (Gen. 2:18-25) before continuing on with the Genesis account.
Additional sections concerning Passover/ULB in the Tenach are covered below for the sake of completeness.
23:14 Three times you shalt keep a feast to me in the year.
23:15 you shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (you shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded you, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it you camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)
23:16 And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of your labors, which you hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when you hast gathered in your labors out of the field.
23:17 Three items in the year all your males shall appear before YHWH Elohim.
23:18 you shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning.
These passages cover the seven days of Unleavened Bread, Pentecost and Ingathering as the three times that freewill offerings must be brought - the quality of which is of course up to the individual. Here, the timing of Passover cannot be forced into the seven Days of ULB because the timing of Rosh Hashana, Yom Kippur, and the Last Great Day are likewise omitted.
9:2 Let the children of Israel also keep the Passover at his appointed season.
9:3 In the fourteenth day of this month, at evening, you shall keep it in his appointed season: according to all the rites of it, and according to all the ceremonies thereof, shall you keep it.
9:4 And Moses spake to the children of Israel, that they should keep the Passover.
9:5 And they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month at evening in the wilderness of Sinai: according to all that YHWH commanded Moses, so did the children of Israel.
If one missed the Passover based on a legitimate excuse, the following applies:
9:11 The fourteenth day of the second month at even they shall keep it, and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
From these verses again we see Passover is on the 14th. We also can see that Passover itself is eaten with bitter herbs and unleavened bread, however nothing here tells us that we should consider Passover as the first day of the regular seven days of unleavened bread, which we know begins on the 15th, during which leaven is forbidden in dwellings.
33:3 And they departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the next day (after) the Passover the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
Here it is plainly stated that Israel departed Egypt on the 15th which was the "next day after" the Passover (which obviously occurred on the 14th). The Hebrew root "mochar" appears here for "next day" and this term along with the term "erev" (evening) appears in I Sam. 30:17 in such a way that sheds light on these terms.
30:17a And David smote them from the (morning) twilight even to the evening of the next day...
The LXX renders:
30:17a And came upon them David and smote them from the (early) morning until evening, even to the next day...
And Josephus Ant. 6:14:6 renders:
David came upon them and smote them from the first hour of the day to the evening...
"Neshef" can mean evening or morning twilight depending on context. From these three accounts it is apparent that the "neshef" (twilight) being spoken of was that of the early morning twilight period. What emerges from these texts then, is that David enacted an approximately 12 hour siege which lasted until the "evening of the next day". The root here for "next day" is mochar, and since evening (erev) is here associated with it, it is apparent that evening is here used to designate the beginning of a completely new calendar day from the morning in which the siege began.
Therefore, from this definition of the root "mochar" it is apparent that the reference to "the next day after Passover" was on the 15th after the Passover which completely occurred on the 14th. Now, in Num. 33:3 when they left Egypt on the 15th, if it was a Sabbath High Day, it would not seem to be the proper time for YHWH to cause them to begin such an arduous journey (Ex. 16:29; Acts 1:12). Furthermore, if it was a Sabbath High Day then it seems strange that many of the chief men of Israel, including Moses, deliberately became unclean when they exhumed Joseph's body and carried it with them (Ex. 13:19, Num. 9:10,19:11). At any rate, it is apparent from the use of the root "mochar" that the 15th was not the Passover nor was it an High Day Sabbath. An interesting point about "neshef" can also be derived from these scriptures with regard to the idiomatic phrase "between the evenings (twilights)". "Neshef" refers to the evening twilight as well as the morning twilight depending on context. Because of the textual link to "erev" and to the morning twilight it seems plausible that the phrase "between the evenings" actually means "between the evening-morning". This follows the pattern of the evening-morning established in the Passover rite because it is a matter of record that in II Chron. 35 the Levites conducted the Passover sacrifices well into the night. On the other hand, that the phrase "between the evenings" means "between the evening-morning" is further verified by the fact that the Passover rite is commanded to end at the time of the morning oblation.
16:1 Observe the month of Abib, and keep the Passover to YHWH your Elohim: for in the month of Abib YHWH your ELOHIM brought you forth out of Egypt by night.
16:2 You shall therefore sacrifice the Passover to YHWH your ELOHIM, of the flock and the herd, in the place which YHWH shall choose to place his name there.
16:3 You shall eat no leavened bread with it; seven days you shall eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for you camest forth out of the land of Egypt in haste: that you may remember the day when you came forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life.
16:4 And there shall be no leavened bread seen with you in all your borders seven days; neither shall there be anything of the flesh, which you sacrificed the day before at evening, remain all night until the morning.
16:5 You may not sacrifice the Passover within any of your gates, which YHWH Elohim gives you:
16:6 But at the place which YHWH your Elohim shall choose to place his name in, there you shalt sacrifice the Passover at evening, at the going down of the sun, at the season that you camest forth out of Egypt.
16:7 And you shall roast and eat it in the place which YHWH your Elohim shall choose: and you shall turn in the morning, and go to your tents.
16:8 Six days you shall eat unleavened bread: and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to YHWH your Elohim: you shall do no work therein.
Again, we see that the Passover occurs on the 14th and no leaven bread is eaten with it. And, just as the above examples show, the seven days of unleavened bread follow after it. In 16:4 the word "roshown" appears again which has been here again rendered as "before". In 16:3 the command to observe seven days of unleavened bread is given so that Israel may remember the "day" that they came out of Egypt (indicating to begin with the 15th). It is noted that the Passover sacrifice takes place outside the camp at evening in the "season" (not necessarily the exact day) that Israel came out of Egypt. And it is shown that the seventh day of unleavened bread (the 21st) is a solemn assembly and a Sabbath.
5:10 And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho.
5:11 And they did eat of the old barley of the land on the day after the Passover, unleavened cakes, and parched barley in the selfsame day.
5:12 And the manna ceased on the day after they had eaten of the old barley of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more; but they did eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year.
Here again we have the Passover on the 14th of Nisan in v.10. In v.11, Israel eats unleavened bread "on the next day" (mochar) which was the 15th. This was made from the stored barley from the previous year that was acquired from Israel's vanquished enemies. In v. 12, the manna ceased (therefore, apparently a weekly Sabbath, Ex. 16) after they had eaten the unleavened bread on the 15th which shows this to be a Thursday, Friday, Saturday sequence from the 14th - 16th. In v. 12b, they ate of the new barley - this would have began on Sunday the 17th in accordance with Deut. 16:9 and Lev. 23:10, 15. (See When is the Correct Timing of Pentecost by Chris Lingle).
In II Chron.:
35:1 Moreover Josiah kept a Passover to the L-RD in Jerusalem: and they killed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month.
35:7 And Josiah gave to the people, of the flock, lambs and kids, all for the Passover offerings, for all that were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand bullocks: these were of the king's substance.
35:11 And they killed the Passover, and the priests sprinkled the blood from their hands, and the Levites flayed them.
35:13 And they roasted the Passover with fire according to the ordinance: but the other holy offerings sod they in pots, and in caldrons, and in pans, and divided them speedily among all the people.
35:14 And afterward they made ready for themselves, and for the priests: because the priests the sons of Aaron were busied in offering of burnt offerings and the fat until night; therefore the Levites prepared for themselves, and for the priests the sons of Aaron.
35:15 And the singers the sons of Asaph were in their place, according to the commandment of David, and Asaph, and Heman, and Jeduthun the king's seer; and the porters waited at every gate; they might not depart from their service; for their brethren the Levites prepared for them.
35:16 So all the service of the L-RD was prepared the same day, to keep the Passover, and to offer burnt offerings upon the altar of the L-RD, according to the commandment of king Josiah.
35:17 And the children of Israel that were present kept the Passover at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days. (KJV)
It seems unclear, based on the sacrifice pattern, whether Josiah is keeping the proto-Nazarene or proto-Rabbinic System. Here, the Levites offered a great many burnt offerings as extra offerings and cooked in pots and pans "according to the commandment of Josiah" (v. 16). Now these innovations are not to be found in Torah. The only obvious apparency here is that the excitement over the newly found Book of the Law created an atmosphere where they were compelled to do the best that they could with an abundant intention. It must be noted here however, that the Passover Lamb itself becomes a burnt offering by morning. This account parallels that of I Esdras 1.
And in Ezekiel:
45:21 In the first (month), in the fourteenth day of the month, there shall be to you the Passover Feast. Seven days unleavened bread he eats.
45:22 And upon that day shall the prince prepare for himself and for all the people of the land a bullock for a sin offering.
45:23 And seven days of the feast he shall prepare a burnt offering to YHWH, seven bullocks and seven rams without blemish daily the seven days; and a kid of the goats daily for a sin offering.
45:24 And he shall prepare a meat offering of an ephah for a bullock, and an ephah for a ram, and an hin of oil for an ephah.
Here again, we have the 14th as Passover and then the seven days of unleavened bread during which the description of the seven day offerings takes place. It is a common thread throughout the Tenach for the 15th to be named using cognomens such as "that day" (v.22), as this was the day that Israel left Egypt in one accord.
Further evidence in support of the Nazarene System may be found in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. We have the statement of Ezekiel, the Samaritan, writing in about the 2nd cent BCE:
And when the 10th day of this moon is come, let Hebrew men by families thus select unblemished sheep and calves, and keep them until the 14th day has dawned (epilampsei) and then at evening make sacrifice
(OTP, Charlesworth, p. 815-816)
As shown above, the Greek word "epilampsei" means "has dawned". In other words, the 14th day had just begun when the lamb was sacrificed. What is shown here is that Ezekiel the Samaritan supports the understanding that the beginning of the 14th is the time of the Passover sacrifice.. Therefore, we have validation from the ancient Samaritans that the Nazarene System was, in fact, at least a plausible interpretation of Torah from at least the 2nd century B.C.E.
In the centuries that followed the crucifixion of Yahushuathere ensued a great controversy between two groups that became known as Quartodecimans and Quintadecimans. The Quartodecimans emphasized the meal that Yahushua had with his disciples, claiming that it represented the true timing of Passover; while the Quintadecimans emphasized the crucifixion represented the better timing for the Passover. As the argument evolved between these two groups it became more of a matter of when to count Easter Sunday - that is from the Sunday falling on or after the 14th or the Sunday falling on or after the 15th of Nisan.(this much can be adduced by any amount of research into the Quartodecimans and Quintadecimans). By the 3rd century C.E., we have evidence that the entire Feast of Passover/ULB was being interpreted by the Quartodecimans as falling from the 14th -20th and excluding the 21st - a seven day system. These ideas are set forth first by Anatolius and later echoed in the 8th century by the History of Bede on the matter. Anatolius discusses when to intercalate the year with regard to Passover and defers to Aristobolus the Judean (3rd cent. B.C.E) as well as Philo and Josephus (Eus. Ecc. Hist. 32:14-19) . He however, does not defer to any authority but himself with regard to his ideas about the 14th-20th and it is Bede who later only parrots Anatolius in his History on the matter, and that much he does with much disagreement (Bede, Ecc. Hist. III. 25) . Apparently, a Quartodeciman school with the full blown understanding of not only the beginning of the 14th (which is supportable) but also that of stopping short of the 21st had also evolved in the British Isles during the few centuries prior to Bede (Bede, Ecc. Hist. II. 2, III. 3, 25). The idea of keeping the Passover/ULB through the 20th and stopping short of the 21st finds no support in history prior to the ideas of Anatolius and the Quartodecimans. Now, the primary (& arguably, the only) text of the O.T. available to the Greek speaking "Quartodeciman" theorists was the LXX. The Greek word used to mean "until" as an equivalant for the Hebrew word "ad" in passages such as Ex 12:18b is "eos". This word appears in the phrase "...until (eos) the 21st ...". The Quartodecimans argue that the most commonly understood definition of this Greek word "eos" is "until" as in "up to" and that only in a minority of cases can this word be understood as "through". However, in this verse, the contextual Hebrew demands that "eos" means "through" by extension. This is the common and acceptable understanding of the original equivalent Hebrew word "ad". However, since there was a major deficit (if not a total absence) of Hebrew mss. available (not to mention intelligible) to the Quartodecimans, the understanding "up to" apparently prevailed among them. Thus, the Quartodecimans halted their festival at the end of the 20th. Now, all of our LXX manuscripts are post 4th century C.E. Interestingly, some manuscripts omit the word "eos" at Ex. 12:18b. This is undoubtedly a result of the confusion over the Passover/ULB timing. Additionally, proponents of the Quartodeciman system require that the word "eos" at Ex.12:15b be translated "until" as in"through", but can not allow this in Ex.12:18b. Certainly then, the idea of only extending Passover/ULB through the 20th, stopping short of the 21st, is based on transient data and should be held in question. This is especially the case, given the late reference to this practice (by Greek speaking Christians alone) on top of the dubious character of its textual support. Further more, the Quartodeciman system does not fit the remainder of the evidence concerning the timing of Passover/ULB because it is deficient with regard to the 21st. Yet, what is much more profound is that while being ancient Greco-Romans, the Quartodecimans still insisted on the beginning of the 14th for the start of the Passover festival and High Day. This would seem to be a great affirmation of our N.T. Greek interpretation of such words as "proto" as they function with regard to describing the Passion Week Nazarene Passover System.
The understanding of an eight day system for Passover/ULB is affirmed by Josephus' statements at Jos. Antiq. 2:15:1 "...we keep a feast for eight days which is called unleavened bread". Whereas, the Torah passages show that there are seven days in which leaven is forbidden, here it affirms the understanding that it is actually eight days in which unleavened bread is partaken (from the 14th-21st, Deut. 16:3). This is elaborated on in a further statement by Josephus at Jos. Antiq. 3:10:5
In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,) the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice which I before told you we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which was called the Passover; and so we do celebrate this Passover in companies, leaving nothing of what we sacrifice till the day following. The feast of unleavened bread succeeds that of the Passover, and falls on the fifteenth day of the month, and continues seven days, wherein they feed on unleavened bread; on every one of which days two bulls are killed, and one ram, and seven lambs. Now these lambs are entirely burnt, besides the kid of the goats which is added to all the rest, for sins; for it is intended as a feast for the priest on every one of those days. But on the second day of unleavened bread, which is the sixteenth day of the month, they first partake of the fruits of the earth, for before that day they do not touch them.
Here again, Josephus shows that the 14th is Passover. Furthermore, he elaborates by telling us that the feast of unleavened bread SUCCEEDS Passover, thus clearly distinguishing and separating the two. He tells us that the feast of unleavened bread falls on the 15th and continues for seven days. Then, he says that the 16th is the SECOND DAY of the feast of unleavened bread. It is not clear whether Josephus is setting forth the Nazarene (eight day) system or the proto-Rabbinic System. However, the clear reading makes it seem that he is setting forth the Nazarene System or at least a variation that was influenced by it. At any rate he describes an eight day (not a seven day system). Furthermore, it is reasonable that Jewish Halacha (and therefore Josephus' understanding) of Passover/ULB had divergence in the 1st century from the later normative practice of successive Rabbis. Of interest is a practice that remained appended to the Passover among the School of Shammai, Mish. Pesahim 4:5E-I:
And the sages say: In Judah they do work on the eve of Passover (the 14th of Nisan ) up to noon, but in Galilee they did not do so at all. And as to the night (of the 14th of Nisan), the House of Shammai prohibits doing work at that time. And the House of Hillel permits it up to sunrise.
Here it states that in Judah they would tend to extend work on the 14th up to noon but that the House of Hillel would only extend work to sunrise of the 14th and that the House of Shammai prohibited work on the whole night and day portion of the 14th. These differing practices most likely had to do with differing ideas of what should be considered an adequate fence around Torah with regard to Passover. It is well known that the Pharisees of all schools were observing Passover on the eve of the 14th/15th of Nisan. Yet, it is more than intriguing that the School of Shammai thought it necessary to ban work altogether on the 14th of Nisan. Perhaps this was a remnant practice of a time earlier in history when the Proto-Nazarene System for Passover was the common practice of Israel?
Now, the reference to the Galilee is of interest here, especially when one considers the influence that the Nazarenes may have had upon the community there with regard to this ruling of the House of Shammai. For, this region was where the largest concentration of Yahushua's followers resided. It is probable therefore, that Josephus himself was an adherent to the School of Shammai and thus, his reference to Passover/ULB being "eight days" seems more compatible to the stated practice of that school.The Ancient Samaritans kept the Proto-Nazarene System. A demonstration of this fact is as follows:
A. In the 1st century BCE, Shammai, a Samaritan proselyte, commanded that no work be performed at all in the Galilee where his School presided on the ENTIRE 14th of Nisan. Galilee was where the largest concentration of Nazarenes would also reside. References to Passover as an 8 Day Feast in this time period are undoubtedly a direct result of this practice.
B. In the 2nd century BCE the King of the Samaritans married into the Sadducean line. Because of this, many Sadducees and Levites aligned themselves with the Samaritans and moved North where they established Samaritan Judaism. Of course, in Judea by the 1st century CE the Sadducean party had become almost completely overrun by Herodian blood and influence. However, it is apparent that the Sadducean/Samaritan connection regarding Passover as it existed in the 2nd century BCE has been found.
C. In the 2nd Century BCE, Ezekiel the Samaritan records that the Samaritans killed their Passover Lambs at the BEGINNING of the 14th.
Therefore, the Ancient Samaritans, were keeping a form of the Proto-Nazarene System. The Ancient Documents that establish this are well preserved. The Ancient Samaritans were actually Aramaic speaking Jews just as the Jews from Elephantine were. The modern Neo-Samaritans continue to keep variations of the Nazarene Passover System to this very day. One such variation is the 14-21st with the 15th as the High Sabbath. This is what the WCG used to do. The problem with this variation is that it was clearly created as an accomodation toward the Rabbinic System with regard to the 15th and the killing of the Passover at the end of the 14th. This is in constrast to how the Samaritans originally did it (at the beginning of the 14th) and was clearly an evolution away from the original.
A most convincing argument for the Nazarene System emerges from the ancient records of the Exodus scenario. By overlaying Num. 33 and Ex. 12-16 with Sefer Yashar we will see an amazingly concise record of the Exodus account which unquestionably argues for the Nazarene System. Amazingly, the conclusion gathered by this evidence here is in outright support for the Nazarene System as the actual original Passover/ULB scenario. Following is a thorough analysis of the records:
33:3 And they departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the day after the Passover the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
33:4 For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, which the L-RD had smitten among them: upon their gods also the L-RD executed judgments.
33:5 And the children of Israel removed from Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.
33:6 And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, which is in the edge of the wilderness.
33:7 And they removed from Etham, and turned again to Pihahiroth, which is before Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol.
33:8 And they departed from before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness, and went three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham, and pitched in Marah.
33:9 And they removed from Marah, and came to Elim: and in Elim were twelve fountains of water, and threescore and ten palm trees; and they pitched there.
By timing the progress of the Israelites as they fled Egypt, the chronology of the first Passover/ULB emerges which further supports this understanding:
In 33:3, it is established that the Israelites departed Rameses on the 15th which was the "day after" (mochar) Passover. Here, as covered earlier in I Sam 30:17 and Josephus, the word "mochar" appears which designates the next calendar date. Therefore, the Passover took place on the 14th day and on the day after (on the 15th at night) is when they left Rameses. Here, if we take a look at Midrash Sefer HaYashar (commonly referred to as the Book of Jasher) some important logistic facts concerning the Exodus emerge. Now, a Midrash is an exegesis of scripture and sometimes is also considered scripture itself. Examples of this are at II Chron. 24:27 where Chronicles proves to be a Midrash of Kings, and at II Chron. 13:22 where the Midrash of Iddo the Prophet is mentioned. Here Yashar which means "upright" would leave the meaning that Midrash Sefer HaYashar is the "upright book or record" of events which it records from the creation of man to the death of Yahushua (Joshua) son of Nun. It is likewise accepted as probable that Midrash Sefer HaYashar, as we have it, is a descendent of Sefer HaYashar which is mentioned in Joshua 10:13 and II Samuel 1:18:
Midrash Sefer HaYashar (The Book of Jasher):
81:1 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides the little ones and wives.
81:5 And the children of Israel traveled from Egypt and from Goshen and from Rameses, and encamped in Succoth on the fifteenth day of the first month.
Here, it is apparent that when morning arrived (Ex. 12:10) on the 14th after Passover, the children of Israel gathered from all around Egypt and the Goshen onto Rameses so that they could all leave in armies (Ex. 6:26, 12:17). According to Josephus, the Israelites dwelt mainly in the city of On (Heliopolis, LXX; Jos., Ant. 2:7:6) and Rameses in the Goshen (Ex. 1:11). From the inception of Israel's captivity in Egypt, the Goshen was the designated place of their settlement (Gen. 45:10). It is apparent that such a convergence of Israel's armies from within the Goshen, besides the act of plundering Egypt (Ex. 12:36), took some time. In fact, since the distance of a forced march on foot can be established at a maximum of approximately 25 miles per day (Jos. Wars 4:11:5), it is entirely reasonable to assume that such an excercise probably took about 12 hours when one adds the convergence time to the time it took to plunder. This point will become even more clear as we take a look at the rest of the Exodus chronology. So, Israel departed from Rameses on the 15th (the fact that this was by night is also very important in showing that the 15th was not the Exodus Passover - Deut. 16:1, Ex. 13:20-22) and then encamped at the end of that same day at Succoth. On the morning of the 16th, Israel pulled up from their camp at Succoth and departed to Etham and pitched (Num. 33:6). It is obvious that one would travel best during the whole day (unless forced to do otherwise) and then one would sleep as little as possible at night with an early rise if one was in a hurry while maximizing energy. Thus, the reference to "they pitched" and "they pulled up" is understood accordingly. Now, on the morning of the 17th, Israel pulled up from Etham and departed for Pihahiroth/Migdol arriving there at the night of the 18th where they pitched. Ancient Pihahiroth was known as Baal Zephon and is modern Mt. Gebel-et-Takah. There, it is plain from the terrain that Israel was locked between the Red Sea (Suph Sea) and the mountains of Baal Zephon because Pharoah's armies had pinched off the very narrow pass between. Today, the geography of this region is still a natural depression, showing clearly that if over a million people were stuck in this spot facing an army, they would be in a dire predicament indeed. It was at this location that YHWH parted the Red Sea from the south (which is attested to in Ex. 14:21, the LXX, Philo and Josephus; as well as this being required by the geography of the location) for the children of Israel who broke through on the morning twilight of the 19th (Num. 33:8). From here, Israel marched for a three days' journey (inclusive reckoning) on the 19th, 20th and 21st from Pihahiroth through the wilderness of Etham (Shur) to Marah where they pitched on the night of the 21st (Num. 33:8). Now, on the morning of the 21st, at Marah, they served YHWH and received instruction by statutes and judgements as per the clear statements at Sefer Yashar 81:45 and Ex. 15:22-26. Such a scenario fits precisely with the idea that this was in fact a High Sabbath occasion. Now, according to Numbers 33:8 and Ex. 15:22-26 Marah was three days' distance from the crossing point. YHWH also performed a miracle at Marah according to Ex. 15:22-26 by providing living water from dead springs. So it was here (at Marah) that the designated spot of the "Feast to YHWH" would take place. It can be shown that Migdol/Baal Zephon/Pihahiroth, (where the crossing point over the Red Sea began) was Egypt's most remote outpost in the vicinity being spoken of (Num. 33:7-8). This is evident by the fact that "Migdol" literally means "watch tower" and refers to where one would keep watch over a road pass or border. A short distance away to the northwest of the city known today as Suez, sits a station pass known as El-Maktal, which means "the Migdol". Josephus likewise identifies this place as a "fortified post" beside the Red Sea (Jos. Ant. 1:15:1). Now, Pihahiroth literally means "face of the pocket". And so it was (and is) that this location straddles the Suph Sea (Gulf of Suez) and the nearby mountain range forming a pocket which would have entrapped the Israelites and would have clearly represented the outermost border of Egypt in the vicinity, seeing that it is a virtually land-locked location. Therefore, when Moses bid Pharoah to release Israel to make a Feast to YHWH, a three days' journey from the borders of Egypt (Ex. 3:18, 5:3, 8:27, 10:22-23), Marah on Nisan 21 was the resultant Feast location and day. This was most likely a contingency plan, with Mt. Sinai as the probable, originally intended, locale. Many scholars feel that modern day Mt. Yeleq, which is also a three days' journey from El-Maktal, was the original Mt. Sinai. This is arrived at by taking the Suph Sea Road which seems to be supported by Philo in Life of Moses, I, XXIX, 165. Mt. Yeleq, which is nearly 150 miles in cicumference, also fits with the statement made by Aristobulus the Judean who states that Mt. Sinai was a five days journey in circumference (Arist. frag. 2:14). Mt. Yeleq, unlike some of the other supposed Mt. Sinai candidates, also has a large enough plain at it's base to accomodate upwards of 2 million Israelites (Arist. frag. 2:14; Philo, de spec. Lib. Leg. 2:27). With all this in consideration however, it was at Marah and not at Mt. Sinai, that Israel ended up at on Nisan 21. Apparently, from the material in the scriptures from Ex. 15-17, Israel had some organizational and faith lessons to learn first before they would actually be brought to Mt. Sinai, which would not occur that year until Shavuot (Pentecost). Whatever the case, it was clearly at Marah that the Israelites kept the last High Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, on the 21st of Nisan. With this time frame in place it is apparent that the Exodus scenario itself touts the Nazarene System for Passover/ULB from the 14th - 21st. The timing for this scenario is interlocked by the remaining portions of chapter 81 of Midrash Sefer HaYashar (The Book of Jasher):
81:6 And the Egyptians buried all their firstborn whom the L-rd had smitten and all the Egyptians buried their slain for three days.
81:7 And the children of Israel traveled from Succoth and encamped in Ethom, at the end of the wilderness.
81:8 And on the third day after the Egyptians had buried their first born, many men rose up from Egypt and went after Israel to make them return to Egypt, for they repented that they had sent the Israelites away from their servitude.
81:9 Now therefore let us rise up early in the morning and cause them to return, and it shall be that if they return with us to Egypt to their masters, then we shall know that there isfaith in them, but if they will not return, then we will fight with them, and make them come back with great power and a strong hand.
81:10 Now therefore let us rise up early in the morning and cause them to return, and it shall be that if they return with us to Egypt to their masters, then shall we know that there is faith in them, but if they will not return, then will we fight with them, and make them come back with great power and a strong hand.
81:11 And all the nobles of Pharaoh rose up in the morning, and with them about seven hundred thousand men, and they went forth from Egypt on that day, and came to the place where the children of Israel were.
81:12 And all the Egyptians saw and behold Moses and Aaron and all the children of Israel were sitting before Pi-hahiroth, eating and drinking and celebrating the feast of the L-rd.
81:13 And all the Egyptians said to the children of Israel, Surely you said, We will go a journey for three days in the wilderness and sacrifice to our G-d and return.
81:14 Now therefore this day makes five days since you went, why do you not return to your masters?
In 81:8, the third day after the Egyptians had been burying their dead, they rose up in the morning to pursue Israel. Now it follows that the third day here mentioned was the 16th of Nisan. The fact that the third day was the 16th is validated in 81:12 where it states that the Egyptians had later caught up with Israel at Pihahiroth. Now, as we have already established, this would have been by the morning of the 18th just prior to the miracle of the crossing. Clearly, if they left to pursue the Israelites on the third day of their burying the dead, it would have taken Pharoah's armies at least this long to reach Pihahiroth even with speedy horses and chariots. Now, we know for sure that Israel departed through the Red Sea on the 19th from Pihahiroth, from our analysis above of Numbers 33. In 81:13 of Jasher it is clear that the Egyptians conveniently misunderstood Moses concerning the three days' journey, due to their stated intention to immediately re-enslave them. Sefer Yashar records that Pharoah's army met with defeat at the hands of the Israelites at Pihahiroth (81:11,17). We also know what happened next was that Egypt's army withdrew and massive replenishments of troops were filtered in by Pharoah who had remained with the bulk of his army some miles away from Pihahiroth in Egypt and therefore, somewhat removed from the initial battle (81:18, 23). However, it is clear that Pharoah could not have been too far away. For when the replenishments arrived having supplementing the army, it became imminent that a miracle was required for Israel to survive (81:25-33). As is apparent in situ even today and as Philo confirms, in Life of Moses, I, XXXII, 169, the terrain here builds up an incline that becomes a wide hill where Pharoah and his reserves could have camped while effectually eluding surveillance. All of these factors are suggestive of the heat of a high-paced battle. Now, from Ex. 14:19-20 it is apparent that Pharoah's reconfigured forces were prevented from coming immediately upon Israel by a Pillar of Fire. Then, suddenly as the Sea parted, Pharoah's armies were released to pursue Israel once again (Ex.14:21ff) and in the verses following (81:34ff) the amazing miracle of the crossing through the Red Sea occurred which clearly had to occur on the morning of the 19th (Ex. 14:24). The fact that a three days' journey consisting of inclusive reckoning on the 19th, 20th and 21st followed the crossing is evidence that this is how the scenario transpired (Num. 33:8, Ex. 15:22-23). Further confirmation of the chronological sequence is found in the inclusive reckoning within the statement furnished in 81:14. In 81:14, when the Egyptian army arrived at Pihahiroth, they state to Israel that it was five days since the Israelites went. So in the minds of the Egyptians they reckoned this inclusively from the day they plundered Egypt and mobilized to Rameses (on the 14th) to the 18th, on which day they found the Israelites at Pihahiroth (14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th is five days inclusive reckoning). Thus, the Passover occurred on the 14th night and Israel mobilized to Rameses during the 14th day. Otherwise, there is no way to reconcile these statements to when Pharoah's armies met with Israel at Pihahiroth on the 18th. Again, an analysis of the historical records regarding the Exodus scenario clearly validates the Nazarene System (from the 14th through the 21st). That the Israelites arrived at Pihahiroth, on the bourder of the Red Sea, is further supported by Artapanus, an Alexandrian historian of the third century B.C.E. Artapanus states that Isael arrived at the Red Sea on the third day of traveling from the rivers of Arabia which is, according to Charlesworth, the Nile Delta, and would be a reference to the area of Rameses in the Goshen (OTP, Artap. frag.3, 27:34). Artapanus furnishes us with exclusive reckoning counting the 15th to the 16th as the first day, the 16th to the 17th as the second day, and the 17th to the 18th as the third day. This dovetails precisely with the inclusive method of reckoning that is furnished in Sefer Yasher parallelling these events.
|The Passover/ULB of the Exodus according to Exodus, Numbers & Sef. Yashar|
|5 Days (inclusive) - Sef. Yashar 81:14|
|Egypt Burying Their Dead
3 Days (inclusive)
|3 Days journey (inclusive)|
Certainly, YHWH is an Elohim of order. A very compelling and logical pattern is developed by the timing of the annual moedim. The following graphic pattern shows a relationship between the Feasts - a mirror image:
Now let us examine some of the special features expressed in this chart. To begin with, let us turn our attention to the center point of the chart. Here we find Rosh HaShanna, the beginning of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. On each side of Rosh HaShanna we have one single day moed, Shavuot (Pentecost) and Yom Kippur. On either side of each of these we have an eight day celebration. On the left we have Passover (a High Sabbath) followed by seven days of Unleavened Bread (six days following Passover with the last day being a High Sabbath), while on the right we have seven days of Sukkot (which begins with a High Sabbath and is followed by six days and the High Sabbath known as "The Last Great Day." It is also important to note that the Spring Feasts of the Former Rain fall on one side of the chart, while the Fall feasts of the latter rain fall on the other side of the chart (Jer. 5:24, Joel 2, Deut. 11). The two sides are evenly divided in the middle by Rosh HaShanna, the beginning of the civil year. On either end of the chart are the tekufot (equinoxes) which are used to align the lunar Hebrew calendar with the solar year. The outer limits of the annual moedim (the Passover and the Last Great Day) are governed by the tekufot. In fact, there is always an average of 186 days between the spring and fall equinoxes as well as between Passover and the Last Great Day. Therefore, Passover must be on or after Tekufah Nisan while the Last Great Day must be on or after Tekufah Tishri. This is the rule stated in the Mishna and Talmud and there is a great deal of scriptural, historical, and astronomical proof of this (see Moedim - The Reconstructed Jewish Calendar - by Chris Lingle, for a discussion on intercalation).
Now let us examine in detail the relationship between Passover/Unleavened Bread and its mirror image twin Sukkot/Last Great Day. Passover and the Last Great Day are here in meticulous parallel because both are High Day Sabbaths. The Last Great Day extends one direction beyond the 21st of Tishri to be the 22nd like a trailer while Passover extends the opposite direction beyond the 15th to be the 14th like a header. In a mirror, such would be the effect. After Passover we have seven days with the seventh day as a High Day Sabbath which ends Unleavened Bread while Sukkot (Tabernacles) begins with a High Day Sabbath which is it's first day. After seven days comes the Last Great Day which is a High Sabbath paralleling Passover Day - again a mirror image. Clearly, there are many theological and eschatological parallels between the individual mirror-pairs of the spring and fall Feasts (But this is a subject that will be expanded in a subsequent write-up). Suffice it to say here that no other Passover/ULB System fits within what is clearly set up as a remarkable, astronomically balanced, mirror image pattern of the Moedim.
If one follows the prophetic picture of the Annual Moedim that develops, as they progress in history, an interesting overlay emerges which will be shown here in abbreviated form:
3 Days & 3 Nights
After 3 & 1/2 Days»
Now, from the afternoon of the 17th to the beginning of the 21st is 3 1/2 days. If this plausible prophetic scenario is correct, it certainly seems to support the Nazarene System for Passover/ULB. Now, Daniel 8 contains a prophecy about 2300 days that run to the time of the end. Amazingly, if one begins with Chislev 25 (Channukah) and extends 2300 days forward approx. 6 1/2 years then one may arrive at Nisan 21. This seemingly is comprised within the last week of Dan. 9 and is of interest.
The Nazarene system is kept having Nisan 14 as the Passover and High Day Sabbath after which seven days of unleavened bread begins with the 15th and ends with a High Day Sabbath on the 21st. Unleavened Bread is eaten with the Passover Lamb, which should still be eaten at the Passover Seder (Ex. 12:14). Leaven is forbidden in homes during the seven days of Unleavened Bread from the 15th - 21st. Therefore, it is apparent that the time of leaven removal takes place on the 14th after the Passover Seder ends at morning (Mt. 27:62, Ex. 12:15). This is highly logical. For it is apparent that the leaven removal in the original Passover at the Exodus was fulfilled by Israel simply by leaving all leaven behind in Egypt. Furthermore, leaven is not eaten on the 14th because sin is also left behind (pictured by life in the midst of Egypt and leaven). The features of the Passover Seder in the New Testament parallel closely to the typical Jewish Passover Seder that is still practiced today. Only, more significance upon the symbols used in the ceremony are realized as a result of the interpretations presented by Yahushua during his last Passover.
The way that the Tenach is commonly understood and translated yields a result that is incompatible with a great deal of pertinent evidence germain to the timing of Passover and Unleavened Bread. The Rabbinic System seems at least equally rivaled in light of the evidence that can be mustered in favor of the Nazarene System. When one understands that the Hebrew word commonly rendered first (roshown) can just as validly be translated as "before", then it becomes the key to unlocking the Nazarene System in the Tenach. From this point, all of the circumstantial evidence falls into place in a way that is more satisfactory than the Rabbinic System. This is also the starting point in comprehending that the 14th-21st is the Passover/ULB, but that the 15th is not the High Day - it is the 14th. Not only does an overlay of the Scriptures and ancient Midrashim on the Exodus scenario harmonize tightly with the Nazarene System, we find that the Samaritans from the 2nd century B.C.E. also agreed. Furthermore, we find that the statements made by Josephus in light of the Mishna's reference to the practice of the House of Shammai shows that the practice of an eight day system with the forbidding of work on the 14th must have been a descendent of a more ancient Passover System that was more in alignment with the Nazarene System than the common Rabbinic-type System of that day. Added to these findings is an otherwise unexplainable Annual Moedim Pattern that is aligned in an absolutely precise mirror image when the Nazarene System is overlaid upon the heavens.
Certainly, when one reviews the New Testament passages regarding the passion week it is plain that there are two opposing Passover Systems at work. This is especially made evident when one goes trying to seek an alibi for the problem. Once a mock Passover theory and New Moon problem theory are investigated and disproven, one is left only with an apparent dilemma of solving a harmonization problem between the New Testament and the Tenach. Of course, to many believers, the authority of the New Testament concerning the timing of Passover is enough to establish that the Nazarene System stands apart from the Rabbinic System on it's own merit. However, when a thorough investigation of the timing of Passover/ULB in all sources is re-opened, one discovers that all the evidence can be unforceably aligned to arrive at one conclusion - that of the Nazarene System. That such a topic should be so difficult to resolve on the surface is understandable for a twofold reason. The first is that Judaism has always taught that the Torah would be finally interpreted correctly by the Messiah himself:
Targum Isaiah 12:3b - And you shall receive new instruction with joy from the Chosen of Righteousness.
Midrash Qohelet 11:8 - The Torah which a man learns in this world is but vanity compared to the Torah of Messiah.
Many overlook the fact that Messiah not only came to die, but to restore the truth to his followers. The Nazarene System is the offered Torah of Messiah himself. The second enigma of this topic is the situation faced by Yahushua regarding both the need to keep the Passover and fulfill the typology of the Passover Lamb itself. Instead of viewing these cicumstances as a problem, perhaps they should be viewed as an opportunity. The wording of the Tenach is in such a way that the Nazarene and Rabbinic System both seem validated. Given that Messiah had to keep torah perfectly (I Pet. 2:22) and, that in order to fulfill prophecy, the Jews had to reject and slay the Messiah (Isa. 53, Ps. 22:16, 118:22, Zech. 12:10), it is apparent why both the Nazarene and Rabbinic Systems had to exist. At the time of Yahushua's betrayal, circumstances were such that the Priests and Pharisees would not kill Yahushua during their Feast (Mt. 26:4-5). But, YHWH knew the minds and hearts of these men far in advance. As it turned out, at the passing of Yahushua's death, the Rabbinic System for Passover just began. It seems apparent then, that the 1st coming of Messiah would accompany the simultaneous misinterpretation of the timing of Passover presented by the Rabbinic System so that a time-frame would be available for Messiah to fulfill typology. Such was the necessary case while the Kingdom Offer of that time was being presented (see article by James Trimm - The Kingdom Offer). If the Kingdom Offer of that time were to have any success at all, the Messiah would have to die at the appropriate time when the majority of Jews of that era could recognize the typological significance, just as they did in Acts 2:37. This is how Paul, being a Pharisee, exclaimed that Messiah was our Passover sacrificed for us (Pharisees/Jews by context). Some have a tendency to stretch typology too tight by reasoning that because we know that Yahushua died at the end of the 14th, then that must have been the exact time that the Passover lamb was slain in the Exodus. While the argument initially seems to have some strength, it is erroneous because typologies are not always precise in every aspect. For example, we know that Abraham was the type of the Father and that Isaac was the type of Yahushua when he was on the altar. However, it must be noted that Yahushua was slain by his people and by gentiles, not by the Father. This being the case, one might challenge where all the accusers of Isaac's people were at this moment at the altar. Obviously, such a stretch is a ridiculous challenge, yet it sufficiently illustrates the point. When there is an obvious and recognizable typology in scripture, it is sufficient in the aspects that are obvious without having to force every aspect of that typology. So it is, that we find that as a result of the already prophesied rejection of the Kingdom offer, the proper Passover System was actually re-established for successive generations by the fact that Yahushua kept it right the night before his death. This truth was apparently becoming lost until Yahushua came again to restore it, and it was likewise necessary for Yahushua to establish the proper interpretation of the Passover symbols before his death. In these ways all of YHWH's objectives were fulfilled, even though Yahushua could not be in two places at once. It is only when we reconsider all of this that the genious of the so-called passion week dilemma truly surfaces for what it really is - the providential hand of YHWH. Truly His ways are beyond knowing, yet sometimes, it is only with hind sight that we can know. Herein, the Nazarene System has been, in our day, successfully reconstructed in such a way that historical statements regarding the Passover practice of the Nazarenes actually make sense for the first time in centuries. Below is validation of this:
The Goodnews According to the Hebrews was an ancient account used by the Nazarenes and Ebionites (The original Jewish followers of Y'shua the Messiah). This very important ancient work has been lost to the modern world and exists today only as a collection of quotes and references made by "Church Fathers" and other Historical sources. This account gives further support to an eight day system for Passover/Unleavened Bread:
These eight days of Passover, at which Messiah the son of G-d rose again, signify eight days after the recurrence of the Passover, at which the seed of Adam will be judged, as is proclaimed in the Good News of the Hebrews...
(Good News according to the Hebrews, cited in Breton Vaticanus Reginus, lat. 49)
The above citation of the Nazarenes seems to agree with the chart just presented regarding "A Plausible Prophetic Picture" in that it mentions a judgement that takes place at a prophetic date immediately following the recurrence of the eight days of Passover. Apparently, the reference here would be to the preliminary judgement that Yahushua begins at his coming (Mt. 25:32). Here, as has already been shown in the New Testament, the Nazarenes observed an eight day Passover system rather than a seven day Passover system. From the evidence presented herein, it seems that this was also the original system throughout the Tenach period itself, which was subsequently becoming lost, yet was at last recovered by Yahushua, Our Messiah.
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